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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
ENGINE INOPERATIVE APPROACH AND LANDING

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Although it is a natural desire among pilots to save an
ailing engine with a precautionary shutdown, the
engine should be left running if there is any doubt as to
needing it for further safe flight. Catastrophic failure
accompanied by heavy vibration, smoke, blistering
paint, or large trails of oil, on the other hand, indicate
a critical situation. The affected engine should be
feathered and the "securing failed engine" checklist
completed. The pilot should divert to the nearest suitable
airport and declare an emergency with ATC for
priority handling.

Fuel crossfeed is a method of getting fuel from a tank
on one side of the airplane to an operating engine on
the other. Crossfeed is used for extended single-engine
operation. If a suitable airport is close at hand, there is
no need to consider crossfeed. If prolonged flight on a
single-engine is inevitable due to airport non-availability,
then crossfeed allows use of fuel that would
otherwise be unavailable to the operating engine. It
also permits the pilot to balance the fuel consumption
to avoid an out-of-balance wing heaviness.

AFM/POH procedures for crossfeed vary widely.
Thorough fuel system knowledge is essential if crossfeed
is to be conducted. Fuel selector positions and fuel
boost pump usage for crossfeed differ greatly among
multiengine airplanes. Prior to landing, crossfeed
should be terminated and the operating engine returned
to its main tank fuel supply.

If the airplane is above its single-engine absolute
ceiling at the time of engine failure, it will slowly
lose altitude. The pilot should maintain VYSE to minimize
the rate of altitude loss. This "drift down" rate
will be greatest immediately following the failure
and will decrease as the single-engine ceiling is
approached. Due to performance variations caused
by engine and propeller wear, turbulence, and pilot
technique, the airplane may not maintain altitude
even at its published single-engine ceiling. Any further
rate of sink, however, would likely be modest.

An engine failure in a descent or other low power
setting can be deceiving. The dramatic yaw and performance
loss will be absent. At very low power
settings, the pilot may not even be aware of a failure.
If a failure is suspected, the pilot should advance both
engine mixtures, propellers, and throttles significantly,
to the takeoff settings if necessary, to correctly identify
the failed engine. The power on the operative engine
can always be reduced later.

ENGINE INOPERATIVE APPROACH AND LANDING

The approach and landing with one engine inoperative
is essentially the same as a two-engine approach and
landing. The traffic pattern should be flown at similar
altitudes, airspeeds, and key positions as a two-engine
approach. The differences will be the reduced power
available and the fact that the remaining thrust is
asymmetrical. A higher-than-normal power setting
will be necessary on the operative engine.

With adequate airspeed and performance, the landing
gear can still be extended on the downwind leg. In
which case it should be confirmed DOWN no later
than abeam the intended point of landing. Performance
permitting, initial extension of wing flaps (10°, typically)
and a descent from pattern altitude can also be
initiated on the downwind leg. The airspeed should be
no slower than VYSE. The direction of the traffic pattern,
and therefore the turns, is of no consequence as
far as airplane controllability and performance are
concerned. It is perfectly acceptable to make turns
toward the failed engine.

On the base leg, if performance is adequate, the flaps
may be extended to an intermediate setting (25°, typically).
If the performance is inadequate, as measured
by a decay in airspeed or high sink rate, delay further
flap extension until closer to the runway. VYSE is still
the minimum airspeed to maintain.

On final approach, a normal, 3° glidepath to a landing
is desirable. VASI or other vertical path lighting aids
should be utilized if available. Slightly steeper
approaches may be acceptable. However, a long, flat,
low approach should be avoided. Large, sudden power
applications or reductions should also be avoided.
Maintain VYSE until the landing is assured, then slow
to 1.3 VSO or the AFM/POH recommended speed. The
final flap setting may be delayed until the landing is
assured, or the airplane may be landed with partial
flaps.

The airplane should remain in trim throughout. The
pilot must be prepared, however, for a rudder trim
change as the power of the operating engine is reduced
to idle in the roundout just prior to touchdown. With
drag from only one windmilling propeller, the airplane
will tend to float more than on a two-engine approach.
Precise airspeed control therefore is essential, especially
when landing on a short, wet and/or slippery surface.

Some pilots favor resetting the rudder trim to neutral
on final and compensating for yaw by holding rudder
pressure for the remainder of the approach. This eliminates
the rudder trim change close to the ground as
the throttle is closed during the roundout for landing.
This technique eliminates the need for groping for the
rudder trim and manipulating it to neutral during final
approach, which many pilots find to be highly distracting.
AFM/POH recommendations or personal
preference should be used.

 

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