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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

CHECKLIST—Having accomplished the
memory items from the "engine failure after
takeoff" checklist, the printed copy should be
reviewed as time permits. The "securing failed
engine" checklist [Figure 12-15] should then be
accomplished. Unless the pilot suspects an
engine fire, the remaining items should be
accomplished deliberately and without undue
haste. Airplane control should never be sacrificed
to execute the remaining checklists. The priority
items have already been accomplished from
memory.

Typical “securing failed engine” emergency
Figure 12-15. Typical "securing failed engine" emergency
checklist.

Other than closing the cowl flap of the failed engine,
none of these items, if left undone, adversely affects
airplane climb performance. There is a distinct possibility
of actuating an incorrect switch or control if the procedure
is rushed. The pilot should concentrate on flying
the airplane and extracting maximum performance. If
ATC facilities are available, an emergency should be
declared.

The memory items in the "engine failure after takeoff"
checklist may be redundant with the airplane's existing
configuration. For example, in the third takeoff scenario,
the gear and flaps were assumed to already be retracted,
yet the memory items included gear and flaps. This is
not an oversight. The purpose of the memory items is
to either initiate the appropriate action or to confirm
that a condition exists. Action on each item may not
be required in all cases. The memory items also
apply to more than one circumstance. In an engine
failure from a go-around, for example, the landing
gear and flaps would likely be extended when the
failure occurred.

The three preceding takeoff scenarios all include the
landing gear as a key element in the decision to land or
continue. With the landing gear selector in the DOWN
position, for example, continued takeoff and climb is
not recommended. This situation, however, is not justification
to retract the landing gear the moment the
airplane lifts off the surface on takeoff as a normal
procedure. The landing gear should remain selected
down as long as there is usable runway or overrun
available to land on. The use of wing flaps for takeoff
virtually eliminates the likelihood of a single-engine
climb until the flaps are retracted.

There are two time-tested memory aids the pilot may
find useful in dealing with engine-out scenarios. The
first, "Dead foot–dead engine" is used to assist in identifying
the failed engine. Depending on the failure
mode, the pilot won't be able to consistently identify
the failed engine in a timely manner from the engine
gauges. In maintaining directional control, however,
rudder pressure will be exerted on the side (left or right)
of the airplane with the operating engine. Thus, the
"dead foot" is on the same side as the "dead engine."
Variations on this saying include "Idle foot–idle
engine" and "Working foot–working engine."

The second memory aid has to do with climb performance.
The phrase "Raise the dead" is a reminder that
the best climb performance is obtained with a very
shallow bank, about 2° toward the operating engine.
Therefore, the inoperative, or "dead" engine should be
"raised" with a very slight bank.

Not all engine power losses are complete failures.
Sometimes the failure mode is such that partial power
may be available. If there is a performance loss when
the throttle of the affected engine is retarded, the pilot
should consider allowing it to run until altitude and airspeed
permit safe single-engine flight, if this can be
done without compromising safety. Attempts to save a
malfunctioning engine can lead to a loss of the entire
airplane.

ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT

Engine failures well above the ground are handled
differently than those occurring at lower speeds and
altitudes. Cruise airspeed allows better airplane control,
and altitude may permit time for a possible
diagnosis and remedy of the failure. Maintaining
airplane control, however, is still paramount.
Airplanes have been lost at altitude due to apparent
fixation on the engine problem to the detriment of
flying the airplane.

Not all engine failures or malfunctions are catastrophic
in nature (catastrophic meaning a major mechanical
failure that damages the engine and precludes further
engine operation). Many cases of power loss are
related to fuel starvation, where restoration of power
may be made with the selection of another tank. An
orderly inventory of gauges and switches may reveal
the problem. Carburetor heat or alternate air can be
selected. The affected engine may run smoothly on just
one magneto or at a lower power setting. Altering the
mixture may help. If fuel vapor formation is suspected,
fuel boost pump operation may be used to eliminate
flow and pressure fluctuations.

 

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