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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
REJECTED TAKEOFF
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER LIFT-OFF

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

If the go-around was initiated due to conflicting traffic
on the ground or aloft, the pilot should maneuver to the
side, so as to keep the conflicting traffic in sight. This
may involve a shallow bank turn to offset and then parallel
the runway/landing area.

If the airplane was in trim for the landing approach
when the go-around was commenced, it will soon require
a great deal of forward elevator/stabilator pressure as the
airplane accelerates away in a climb. The pilot should
apply appropriate forward pressure to maintain the
desired pitch attitude. Trim should be commenced immediately.
The "balked landing" checklist should be
reviewed as work load permits.

Flaps should be retracted before the landing gear for
two reasons. First, on most airplanes, full flaps produce
more drag than the extended landing gear. Secondly,
the airplane will tend to settle somewhat with flap
retraction, and the landing gear should be down in the
event of an inadvertent, momentary touchdown.

Many multiengine airplanes have a landing gear retraction
speed significantly less than the extension speed.
Care should be exercised during the go-around not to
exceed the retraction speed. If the pilot desires to
return for a landing, it is essential to re-accomplish the
entire "before landing" checklist. An interruption to a
pilot's habit patterns, such as a go-around, is a classic
scenario for a subsequent gear up landing.

The preceding discussion of go-arounds assumes that
the maneuver was initiated from normal approach
speeds or faster. If the go-around was initiated from a
low airspeed, the initial pitch up to a climb attitude must
be tempered with the necessity of maintaining adequate
flying speed throughout the maneuver. Examples of
where this applies include go-arounds initiated from the
landing roundout or recovery from a bad bounce as well
as a go-around initiated due to an inadvertent approach
to a stall. The first priority is always to maintain control
and obtain adequate flying speed. A few moments of
level or near level flight may be required as the airplane
accelerates up to climb speed.

REJECTED TAKEOFF

A takeoff can be rejected for the same reasons a takeoff
in a single-engine airplane would be rejected. Once the
decision to reject a takeoff is made, the pilot should
promptly close both throttles and maintain directional
control with the rudder, nosewheel steering, and
brakes. Aggressive use of rudder, nosewheel steering,
and brakes may be required to keep the airplane on
the runway. Particularly, if an engine failure is not
immediately recognized and accompanied by
prompt closure of both throttles. However, the primary
objective is not necessarily to stop the airplane
in the shortest distance, but to maintain control of
the airplane as it decelerates. In some situations, it
may be preferable to continue into the overrun area
under control, rather than risk directional control loss,
landing gear collapse, or tire/brake failure in an
attempt to stop the airplane in the shortest possible
distance.

ENGINE FAILURE AFTER LIFT-OFF

A takeoff or go-around is the most critical time to suffer
an engine failure. The airplane will be slow, close
to the ground, and may even have landing gear and
flaps extended. Altitude and time will be minimal.
Until feathered, the propeller of the failed engine will
be windmilling, producing a great deal of drag and
yawing tendency. Airplane climb performance will be
marginal or even non-existent, and obstructions may
lie ahead. Add the element of surprise and the need for
a plan of action before every takeoff is obvious.

With loss of an engine, it is paramount to maintain
airplane control and comply with the manufacturer's
recommended emergency procedures. Complete failure
of one engine shortly after takeoff can be broadly
categorized into one of three following scenarios.

1. Landing gear down. [Figure 12-11] If the
engine failure occurs prior to selecting the landing
gear to the UP position, close both throttles
and land on the remaining runway or overrun.
Depending upon how quickly the pilot reacts to
the sudden yaw, the airplane may run off the
side of the runway by the time action is taken.
There are really no other practical options. As
discussed earlier, the chances of maintaining
directional control while retracting the flaps (if
extended), landing gear, feathering the propeller,
and accelerating are minimal. On some airplanes
with a single-engine-driven hydraulic pump,
failure of that engine means the only way to
raise the landing gear is to allow the engine to
windmill or to use a hand pump. This is not a
viable alternative during takeoff.

2. Landing gear control selected up, single engine
climb performance inadequate.

[Figure 12-12] When operating near or above
the single-engine ceiling and an engine failure is
experienced shortly after lift-off, a landing must
be accomplished on whatever essentially lies
ahead. There is also the option of continuing
ahead, in a descent at VYSE with the remaining
engine producing power, as long as the pilot
is not tempted to remain airborne beyond the
airplane's performance capability. Remaining
airborne, bleeding off airspeed in a futile
attempt to maintain altitude is almost invariably
fatal. Landing under control is paramount. The
greatest hazard in a single-engine takeoff is
attempting to fly when it is not within the per-
formance capability of the airplane to do so. An
accident is inevitable.

 

12-18