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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
NORMAL APPROACH AND LANDING

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Normal two-engine approach and landing.
Figure 12-8. Normal two-engine approach and landing.

The traffic pattern and approach are typically flown at
somewhat higher indicated airspeeds in a multiengine
airplane contrasted to most single-engine airplanes.
The pilot may allow for this through an early start on
the "before landing" checklist. This provides time for
proper planning, spacing, and thinking well ahead of
the airplane. Many multiengine airplanes have partial
flap extension speeds above VFE, and partial flaps can
be deployed prior to traffic pattern entry. Normally, the
landing gear should be selected and confirmed down
when abeam the intended point of landing as the downwind
leg is flown. [Figure 12-8]

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends
a stabilized approach concept. To the greatest
extent practical, on final approach and within 500 feet
AGL, the airplane should be on speed, in trim, configured
for landing, tracking the extended centerline
of the runway, and established in a constant angle of
descent towards an aim point in the touchdown
zone. Absent unusual flight conditions, only minor
corrections will be required to maintain this approach
to the roundout and touchdown.

The final approach should be made with power and
at a speed recommended by the manufacturer; if a recommended
speed is not furnished, the speed should be
no slower than the single-engine best rate-of-climb
speed (VYSE) until short final with the landing assured,
but in no case less than critical engine-out minimum
control speed (VMC). Some multiengine pilots prefer
to delay full flap extension to short final with the landing
assured. This is an acceptable technique with appropriate
experience and familiarity with the airplane.

In the roundout for landing, residual power is gradually
reduced to idle. With the higher wing loading of
multiengine airplanes and with the drag from two
windmilling propellers, there will be minimal float.
Full stall landings are generally undesirable in twins. The
airplane should be held off as with a high performance
single-engine model, allowing touchdown of the main
wheels prior to a full stall.

Under favorable wind and runway conditions, the
nosewheel can be held off for best aerodynamic braking.
Even as the nosewheel is gently lowered to the
runway centerline, continued elevator back pressure
will greatly assist the wheel brakes in stopping the
airplane.

If runway length is critical, or with a strong crosswind,
or if the surface is contaminated with water, ice or
snow, it is undesirable to rely solely on aerodynamic
braking after touchdown. The full weight of the airplane
should be placed on the wheels as soon as
practicable. The wheel brakes will be more effective
than aerodynamic braking alone in decelerating the
airplane.

Once on the ground, elevator back pressure should be
used to place additional weight on the main wheels and
to add additional drag. When necessary, wing flap
retraction will also add additional weight to the wheels
and improve braking effectivity. Flap retraction during
the landing rollout is discouraged, however, unless
there is a clear, operational need. It should not be
accomplished as routine with each landing.

Some multiengine airplanes, particularly those of the
cabin class variety, can be flown through the roundout
and touchdown with a small amount of power. This is
an acceptable technique to prevent high sink rates and
to cushion the touchdown. The pilot should keep in
mind, however, that the primary purpose in landing is
to get the airplane down and stopped. This technique
should only be attempted when there is a generous
margin of runway length. As propeller blast flows
directly over the wings, lift as well as thrust is produced.
The pilot should taxi clear of the runway as soon as
speed and safety permit, and then accomplish the "after
landing" checklist. Ordinarily, no attempt should be
made to retract the wing flaps or perform other checklist
duties until the airplane has been brought to a halt
when clear of the active runway. Exceptions to this
would be the rare operational needs discussed above,
to relieve the weight from the wings and place it on the
wheels. In these cases, AFM/POH guidance should be
followed. The pilot should not indiscriminately reach
out for any switch or control on landing rollout. An
inadvertent landing gear retraction while meaning to
retract the wing flaps may result.

 

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