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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
NORMAL APPROACH AND LANDING

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Takeoff and climb profile.
Figure 12-7.Takeoff and climb profile.

LEVEL OFF AND CRUISE
Upon leveling off at cruising altitude, the pilot should
allow the airplane to accelerate at climb power until
cruising airspeed is achieved, then cruise power and
r.p.m. should be set. To extract the maximum cruise
performance from any airplane, the power setting
tables provided by the manufacturer should be closely
followed. If the cylinder head and oil temperatures are
within their normal ranges, the cowl flaps may be
closed. When the engine temperatures have stabilized,
the mixtures may be leaned per AFM/POH recommendations.
The remainder of the "cruise" checklist should
be completed by this point.

Fuel management in multiengine airplanes is often
more complex than in single-engine airplanes.
Depending upon system design, the pilot may need to
select between main tanks and auxiliary tanks, or
even employ fuel transfer from one tank to another.
In complex fuel systems, limitations are often found
restricting the use of some tanks to level flight only,
or requiring a reserve of fuel in the main tanks for
descent and landing. Electric fuel pump operation can
vary widely among different models also, particularly
during tank switching or fuel transfer. Some fuel
pumps are to be on for takeoff and landing; others are
to be off. There is simply no substitute for thorough
systems and AFM/POH knowledge when operating
complex aircraft.

NORMAL APPROACH AND LANDING

Given the higher cruising speed (and frequently, altitude)
of multiengine airplanes over most single-engine
airplanes, the descent must be planned in advance. A
hurried, last minute descent with power at or near idle
is inefficient and can cause excessive engine cooling.
It may also lead to passenger discomfort, particularly
if the airplane is unpressurized. As a rule of thumb, if
terrain and passenger conditions permit, a maximum
of a 500 f.p.m. rate of descent should be planned.
Pressurized airplanes can plan for higher descent rates,
if desired.

In a descent, some airplanes require a minimum EGT,
or may have a minimum power setting or cylinder
head temperature to observe. In any case, combinations
of very low manifold pressure and high
r.p.m. settings are strongly discouraged by engine
manufacturers. If higher descent rates are necessary,
the pilot should consider extending partial flaps or
lowering the landing gear before retarding the power
excessively. The "descent" checklist should be initiated
upon leaving cruising altitude and completed before
arrival in the terminal area. Upon arrival in the terminal
area, pilots are encouraged to turn on their landing
and recognition lights when operating below
10,000 feet, day or night, and especially when
operating within 10 miles of any airport or in conditions
of reduced visibility.

 

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