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Airplane Flying Handbook
Transition to Complex Airplanes

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



Exceeding temperature limits in an after takeoff climb
is usually not a problem since a full rich mixture cools
with excess fuel. At cruise, however, the pilot normally
reduces power to 75 percent or less and simultaneously
adjusts the mixture. Under cruise conditions,
temperature limits should be monitored most closely
because it's there that the temperatures are most likely
to reach the maximum, even though the engine is
producing less power. Overheating in an enroute
climb, however, may require fully open cowl flaps and
a higher airspeed.

Since turbocharged engines operate hotter at altitude
than do normally aspirated engines, they are more
prone to damage from cooling stress. Gradual
reductions in power, and careful monitoring of
temperatures are essential in the descent phase. The
pilot may find it helpful to lower the landing gear to
give the engine something to work against while power
is reduced and provide time for a slow cool down. It
may also be necessary to lean the mixture slightly to
eliminate roughness at the lower power settings.

Because of the high temperatures and pressures
produced in the turbine exhaust systems, any
malfunction of the turbocharger must be treated with
extreme caution. In all cases of turbocharger operation,
the manufacturer's recommended procedures should
be followed. This is especially so in the case of
turbocharger malfunction. However, in those instances
where the manufacturer's procedures do not
adequately describe the actions to be taken in the event
of a turbocharger failure, the following procedures
should be used.

If an excessive rise in manifold pressure occurs during
normal advancement of the throttle (possibly owing to
faulty operation of the waste gate):
• Immediately retard the throttle smoothly to limit
the manifold pressure below the maximum for
the r.p.m. and mixture setting.
• Operate the engine in such a manner as to avoid a
further overboost condition.

Although this condition may be caused by a minor
fault, it is quite possible that a serious exhaust leak has
occurred creating a potentially hazardous situation:
• Shut down the engine in accordance with the
recommended engine failure procedures, unless
a greater emergency exists that warrants continued
engine operation.
• If continuing to operate the engine, use the lowest
power setting demanded by the situation and
land as soon as practicable.

It is very important to ensure that corrective
maintenance is undertaken following any
turbocharger malfunction.

The primary benefits of being able to retract the
landing gear are increased climb performance and
higher cruise airspeeds due to the resulting decrease in
drag. Retractable landing gear systems may be
operated either hydraulically or electrically, or may
employ a combination of the two systems. Warning
indicators are provided in the cockpit to show the pilot
when the wheels are down and locked and when they
are up and locked or if they are in intermediate
positions. Systems for emergency operation are also
provided. The complexity of the retractable landing
gear system requires that specific operating procedures
be adhered to and that certain operating limitations not
be exceeded.


An electrical landing gear retraction system utilizes an
electrically driven motor for gear operation. The
system is basically an electrically driven jack for
raising and lowering the gear. When a switch in the
cockpit is moved to the UP position, the electric motor
operates. Through a system of shafts, gears, adapters,
an actuator screw, and a torque tube, a force is
transmitted to the drag strut linkages. Thus, the gear
retracts and locks. Struts are also activated that open
and close the gear doors. If the switch is moved to the
DOWN position, the motor reverses and the gear
moves down and locks. Once activated the gear motor
will continue to operate until an up or down limit
switch on the motor's gearbox is tripped.

A hydraulic landing gear retraction system utilizes
pressurized hydraulic fluid to actuate linkages to raise
and lower the gear. When a switch in the cockpit is
moved to the UP position, hydraulic fluid is directed
into the gear up line. The fluid flows through
sequenced valves and down locks to the gear
actuating cylinders. A similar process occurs during
gear extension. The pump which pressurizes the fluid
in the system can be either engine driven or
electrically powered. If an electrically powered pump
is used to pressurize the fluid, the system is referred
to as an electrohydraulic system. The system also
incorporates a hydraulic reservoir to contain excess
fluid, and to provide a means of determining system
fluid level.

Regardless of its power source, the hydraulic pump is
designed to operate within a specific range. When a
sensor detects excessive pressure, a relief valve within
the pump opens, and hydraulic pressure is routed back
to the reservoir. Another type of relief valve prevents
excessive pressure that may result from thermal expansion.
Hydraulic pressure is also regulated by limit
switches. Each gear has two limit switches—one
dedicated to extension and one dedicated to retraction.