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Airplane Flying Handbook
Introduction to Flight Training
Flight Safety Practices

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Airplane Flying Handbook

Preface

Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures

Glossary

Index

Planning, clear communications, and enhanced
situational awareness during airport surface
operations will reduce the potential for surface incidents.
Safe aircraft operations can be accomplished
and incidents eliminated if the pilot is properly trained
early on and, throughout his/her flying career,
accomplishes standard taxi operating procedures and
practices. This requires the development of the
formalized teaching of safe operating practices during
taxi operations. The flight instructor is the key to this
teaching. The flight instructor should instill in the
student an awareness of the potential for runway
incursion, and should emphasize the runway
incursion avoidance procedures contained in
Advisory Circular (AC) 91-73, Part 91 Pilot and
Flightcrew Procedures During Taxi Operations and
Part 135 Single-Pilot Operations.

STALL AWARENESS
14 CFR part 61 requires that a student pilot receive and
log flight training in stalls and stall recoveries prior to
solo flight. During this training, the flight instructor
should emphasize that the direct cause of every stall is
an excessive angle of attack. The student pilot should
fully understand that there are any number of flight
maneuvers which may produce an increase in the
wing's angle of attack, but the stall does not occur until
the angle of attack becomes excessive. This "critical"
angle of attack varies from 16 to 20° depending on the
airplane design.

The flight instructor must emphasize that low speed is
not necessary to produce a stall. The wing can be
brought to an excessive angle of attack at any speed.
High pitch attitude is not an absolute indication of
proximity to a stall. Some airplanes are capable of vertical
flight with a corresponding low angle of attack.
Most airplanes are quite capable of stalling at a level or
near level pitch attitude.

The key to stall awareness is the pilot's ability to
visualize the wing's angle of attack in any particular
circumstance, and thereby be able to estimate his/her
margin of safety above stall. This is a learned skill
that must be acquired early in flight training and
carried through the pilot's entire flying career. The
pilot must understand and appreciate factors such as
airspeed, pitch attitude, load factor, relative wind,
power setting, and aircraft configuration in order to
develop a reasonably accurate mental picture of the
wing's angle of attack at any particular time. It is
essential to flight safety that a pilot take into consideration
this visualization of the wing's angle of
attack prior to entering any flight maneuver.

USE OF CHECKLISTS
Checklists have been the foundation of pilot standardization
and cockpit safety for years. The checklist is an
aid to the memory and helps to ensure that critical
items necessary for the safe operation of aircraft are
not overlooked or forgotten. However, checklists are
of no value if the pilot is not committed to its use.
Without discipline and dedication to using the checklist
at the appropriate times, the odds are on the side of
error. Pilots who fail to take the checklist seriously
become complacent and the only thing they can rely
on is memory.

The importance of consistent use of checklists cannot
be overstated in pilot training. A major objective in
primary flight training is to establish habit patterns that
will serve pilots well throughout their entire flying
career. The flight instructor must promote a positive
attitude toward the use of checklists, and the student
pilot must realize its importance. At a minimum, prepared
checklists should be used for the following
phases of flight.

• Preflight Inspection.
• Before Engine Start.
• Engine Starting.
• Before Taxiing.
• Before Takeoff.
• After Takeoff.
• Cruise.
• Descent.
• Before Landing.
• After Landing.
• Engine Shutdown and Securing.

POSITIVE TRANSFER OF CONTROLS
During flight training, there must always be a clear
understanding between the student and flight instructor
of who has control of the aircraft. Prior to any
dual training flight, a briefing should be conducted
that includes the procedure for the exchange of flight
controls. The following three-step process for the
exchange of flight controls is highly recommended.

When a flight instructor wishes the student to take
control of the aircraft, he/she should say to the student,
"You have the flight controls." The student
should acknowledge immediately by saying, "I have
the flight controls." The flight instructor confirms by
again saying, "You have the flight controls." Part of
the procedure should be a visual check to ensure that
the other person actually has the flight controls. When
returning the controls to the flight instructor, the student
should follow the same procedure the instructor
used when giving control to the student. The student
should stay on the controls until the instructor says:
"I have the flight controls." There should never be
any doubt as to who is flying the airplane at any one
time. Numerous accidents have occurred due to a lack
of communication or misunderstanding as to who
actually had control of the aircraft, particularly
between students and flight instructors. Establishing
the above procedure during initial training will ensure
the formation of a very beneficial habit pattern.

 

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