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Airplane Flying Handbook
Introduction to Flight Training
Purpose of Flight Traning

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Airplane Flying Handbook


Table of Contents

Chapter 1,Introduction to Flight Training
Chapter 2,Ground Operations
Chapter 3,Basic Flight Maneuvers
Chapter 4, Slow Flight, Stalls, and Spins
Chapter 5, Takeoff and Departure Climbs
Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers
Chapter 7, Airport Traffic Patterns
Chapter 8, Approaches and Landings
Chapter 9, Performance Maneuvers
Chapter 10, Night Operations
Chapter 11,Transition to Complex Airplanes
Chapter 12, Transition to Multiengine Airplanes
Chapter 13,Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes
Chapter 14, Transition to Turbo-propeller Powered Airplanes
Chapter 15,Transition to Jet Powered Airplanes
Chapter 16,Emergency Procedures



approved by the FAA. The TCO must contain student
enrollment prerequisites, detailed description of each
lesson including standards and objectives, expected
accomplishments and standards for each stage of training,
and a description of the checks and tests used to
measure a student's accomplishments. FAA-approved
pilot school certificates must be renewed every 2 years.
Renewal is contingent upon proof of continued high
quality instruction and a minimum level of instructional
activity. Training at an FAA certificated pilot school is
structured. Because of this structured environment, the
CFRs allow graduates of these pilot schools to meet the
certification experience requirements of 14 CFR part
61 with less flight time. Many FAA certificated pilot
schools have designated pilot examiners (DPEs) on
their staff to administer FAA practical tests. Some
schools have been granted examining authority by the
FAA. A school with examining authority for a particular
course or courses has the authority to recommend its
graduates for pilot certificates or ratings without further
testing by the FAA. A list of FAA certificated pilot
schools and their training courses can be found in
Advisory Circular (AC) 140-2, FAA Certificated Pilot
School Directory.

FAA-approved training centers are certificated under
14 CFR part 142. Training centers, like certificated
pilot schools, operate in a structured environment with
approved courses and curricula, and stringent standards
for personnel, equipment, facilities, operating procedures
and record keeping. Training centers certificated
under 14 CFR part 142, however, specialize in the use
of flight simulation (flight simulators and flight training
devices) in their training courses.

The overwhelming majority of flying schools in the
United States are not certificated by the FAA. These
schools operate under the provisions of 14 CFR part
61. Many of these non-certificated flying schools offer
excellent training, and meet or exceed the standards
required of FAA-approved pilot schools. Flight
instructors employed by non-certificated flying
schools, as well as independent flight instructors, must
meet the same basic 14 CFR part 61 flight instructor
requirements for certification and renewal as those
flight instructors employed by FAA certificated pilot
schools. In the end, any training program is dependent
upon the quality of the ground and flight instruction a
student pilot receives.

Practical tests for FAA pilot certificates and associated
ratings are administered by FAA inspectors and designated
pilot examiners in accordance with FAA-developed
practical test standards (PTS). [Figure 1-3] 14 CFR
part 61 specifies the areas of operation in which
knowledge and skill must be demonstrated by the
applicant. The CFRs provide the flexibility to permit
the FAA to publish practical test standards containing
the areas of operation and specific tasks in which
competence must be demonstrated. The FAA requires
that all practical tests be conducted in accordance with
the appropriate practical test standards and the policies
set forth in the Introduction section of the practical test
standard book.

It must be emphasized that the practical test standards
book is a testing document rather than a teaching document.
An appropriately rated flight instructor is
responsible for training a pilot applicant to acceptable
standards in all subject matter areas, procedures, and
maneuvers included in the tasks within each area of
operation in the appropriate practical test standard.
The pilot applicant should be familiar with this book
and refer to the standards it contains during training.
However, the practical test standard book is not
intended to be used as a training syllabus. It contains
the standards to which maneuvers/procedures on FAA
practical tests must be performed and the FAA policies
governing the administration of practical tests.
Descriptions of tasks, and information on how to
perform maneuvers and procedures are contained in
reference and teaching documents such as this
handbook. A list of reference documents is contained
in the Introduction section of each practical test standard

Practical test standards may be downloaded from the
Regulatory Support Division's, AFS-600, Web site at
http://afs600.faa.gov. Printed copies of practical test
standards can be purchased from the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC 20402. The official online bookstore
Web site for the U.S. Government Printing Office is

In the interest of safety and good habit pattern formation,
there are certain basic flight safety practices and
procedures that must be emphasized by the flight
instructor, and adhered to by both instructor and student,
beginning with the very first dual instruction flight.
These include, but are not limited to, collision
avoidance procedures including proper scanning
techniques and clearing procedures, runway incursion
avoidance, stall awareness, positive transfer of
controls, and cockpit workload management.